Theory of Machines and Machine Design: Concept of simple machine, four bar linkage and link motion, Flywheels and fluctuation of energy, Power transmission by belts: V-belts and Flat belts, Clutches – Plate and Conical clutch, Gears – Type of gears, gear profile and gear ratio calculation, Governors – Principles and classification, Riveted joint, Cams, Bearings, Friction in collars and pivots.

Engineering Mechanics and Strength of Materials: Equilibrium of Forces, Law of motion, Friction, Concepts of stress and strain, Elastic limit and elastic constants, Bending moments and shear force diagram, Stress in composite bars, Torsion of circular shafts, Bucking of columns – Euler’s and Rankin’s theories, Thin walled pressure vessels.

Thermal Engineering: Properties of Pure Substances : p-v & P-T diagrams of pure substance like H2O, Introduction of steam table with respect to steam generation process; definition of saturation, wet & superheated status. Definition of dryness fraction of steam, degree of superheat of steam. H-s chart of steam (Mollier’s Chart). 1st Law of Thermodynamics: Definition of stored energy & internal energy, 1st Law of Thermodynamics of cyclic process, Non Flow Energy Equation, Flow Energy & Definition of Enthalpy, Conditions for Steady State Steady Flow; Steady State Steady Flow Energy Equation. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics : Definition of Sink, Source Reservoir of Heat, Heat Engine, Heat Pump & Refrigerator; Thermal Efficiency of Heat Engines & co-efficient of performance of Refrigerators, Kelvin – Planck & Clausius Statements of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, Absolute or Thermodynamic Scale of temperature, Clausius Integral, Entropy, Entropy change calculation of ideal gas processes. Carnot Cycle & Carnot Efficiency, PMM-2; definition & its impossibility.

Air standard Cycles for IC engines: Otto cycle; plot on P-V, T-S Planes; Thermal Efficiency, Diesel Cycle; Plot on P-V, T-S planes; Thermal efficiency. IC Engine Performance, IC Engine Combustion, IC Engine Cooling & Lubrication. Rankine cycle of steam : Simple Rankine cycle plot on P-V, T-S, h-s planes, Rankine cycle efficiency with & without pump work. Boilers; Classification; Specification; Fittings & Accessories: Fire Tube & Water Tube Boilers. Nozzles & Steam Turbines.Air Compressors & their cycles; Refrigeration cycles; Principle of a Refrigeraton Plant;

Fluid Mechanics & Machinery: Properties & Classification of Fluid: ideal & real fluids, Newton’s law of viscosity, Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids, compressible and incompressible fluids. Fluid Statics: Pressure at a point, Measurement of Fluid Pressure : Manometers, U-tube, Inclined tube. Fluid Kinematics: Stream line, laminar & turbulent flow, external & internal flow, continuity equation. Dynamics of ideal fluids : Bernoulli’s equation, Total head; Velocity head; Pressure head; Application of Bernoulli’s equitation. Measurement of Flow rate Basic Principles: Venturimeter, Pilot tube, Orifice meter. Hydraulic Turbines: Classifications, Principles. Centrifugal Pumps: Classifications, Principles, Performance.

Production Engineering: Classification of Steels: mild steal & alloy steel, Heat treatment of steel, Welding – Arc Welding, Gas Welding, Resistance Welding, Special Welding Techniques i.e. TIG, MIG, etc. (Brazing & Soldering), Welding Defects & Testing; NDT, Foundry & Casting – methods, defects, different casting processes, Forging, Extrusion, etc, Metal cutting principles, cutting tools, Basic Principles of machining with (i) Lathe (ii) Milling (iii) Drilling (iv) Shaping (v) Grinding, Machines, tools & manufacturing processes.


Engineering Mechanics: Resolution of forces, Equilibrium and Equilibrant, parallelogram law of forces, triangle law of forces, polygon law of forces and Lami’s theorem, couple and moment of a couple, condition for equilibrium of rigid body subjected to number of coplanar non-concurrent forces, definition of static friction, dynamic friction, derivation of limiting angle of friction and angle of repose, resolution of forces considering friction when a body moves on horizontal plane and inclined plane, calculation of moment of inertia and radius of gyration of : (a) I-Section (b) channel section (c) T-Section (d) L-Section (Equal & unequal lengths) (e) Z-Section (f) Built up sections (simple cases only), Newton’s laws of motion (without derivation), motion of projectile, D’Alembert’s principle, definition law of conservation of energy, law of conservation of momentum.

Material Science: Mechanical properties of engineering materials – tensile strength, compressive strength, ductility, malleability, hardness, toughness, brittleness, impact strength, fatigue, creep resistance. Classification of steels, mild steel and alloy steels. Importance of heat treatment. Heat treatment processes – annealing, normalizing, hardening, tempering, carburizing, nitriding and cyaniding.

Strength of Materials: Stress, strain, stress strain diagram, factor of safety, thermal stresses, strain energy, proof resilience and modules of resilience. Shear force and bending moment diagram – cant leaver beam, simply supported beam, continuous beam, fixed beam. Torsion in shafts and springs, thin cylinder shells.

Machining: Working principle of lathe. Types of lathes – Engine lathe – construction details and specifications. Nomenclature of single point cutting tool, geometry, tool signature, functions of tool angles. General and special operations – (Turning, facing, taper turning thread cutting, knurling, forming, drilling, boring, reaming, key way cutting), cutting fluids, coolants and lubricants. Introduction to shaper, slotter, plainer, broaching, milling and manufacture of gears, heat treatment process applied to gears.

Welding: Welding – Introduction, classification of welding processes, advantages and limitations of welding, principles of arc welding, arc welding equipment, choice of electrodes for different metals, principle of gas (oxy-acetylene) welding, equipment of gas welding, welding procedures (arc & gas), soldering and brazing techniques, types and applications of solders and fluxes, various flame cutting processes, advantages and limitations of flame cutting, defects in welding, testing and inspection modern welding methods, (submerged, CO2, atomic – hydrogen, ultrasonic welding), brief description of MIG & TIG welding.

Grinding & Finishing process: Principles of metal removal by grinding, abrasives, natural and artificial, bonds and binding processes, vitrified, silicate, shellac rubber, grinding machines, classification: cylindrical, surface, tool & cutter grinding machine, construction details, relative merits, principles of centreless grinding, advantages & limitations of centreless grinding work, holding devices, wheel maintenance, balancing of wheels, coolants used, finishing by grinding, honing, lapping, super finishing, electroplating, basic principles – plating metals, applications, hot dipping, galvanizing tin coating, parkerising, anodizing, metal spraying, wire process, powder process and applications, organic coatings, oil base paint, lacquer base enamels, bituminous paints, rubber base coating.

Metrology: Linear measurement – Slip gauges and dial indicators, angle measurements, bevel protractor, sine bar, angle slip gauges, comparators (a) mechanical (b) electrical (c) optical (d) pneumatic. Measurement of surface roughness; methods of measurements by comparison, tracer instruments and by interferometry, collimators, measuring microscope, interferometer, inspection of machine parts using the concepts of shadow projection and profile projection.

Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery: Properties of fluid, density, specific weight, specific gravity, viscosity, surface tension, compressibility capillarity, Pascal’s law, measurement of pressures, concept of buoyancy. Concept of Reynold’s number, pressure, potential and kinetic energy of liquids, total energy, laws of conservation, mass, energy and momentum, velocity of liquids and discharge, Bernoulli’s equation and assumptions, venturimeters, pitottube, current meters. Working principle & constructional details of centrifugal pump, efficiencies – manometric efficiency, volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency and overall efficiency, cavitation and its effect, working principle of jet & submersible pumps with line diagrams.

Industrial Management: Job analysis, motivation, different theories, satisfaction, performance reward systems, production, planning and control, relation with other departments, routing, scheduling, dispatching, PERT and CPM, simple problems. Materials in industry, inventory control model, ABC Analysis, Safety stock, re-order, level, economic ordering quantity, break even analysis, stores layout, stores equipment, stores records, purchasing procedures, purchase records, Bin card, Cardex, Material handling, Manual lifting, hoist, cranes, conveyors, trucks, fork trucks.

Thermal Engineering: Laws of thermo dynamics, conversion of heat into work vice versa , laws of perfect gases, thermo dynamic processes – isochoric, isobaric, isothermal hyperbolic, isentropic, polytrophic and throttling, modes of heat transfer, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, Stefan Boltzman law by radiation and overall heat transfer coefficient. Air standards cycles – Carnot cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, construction and working of internal combustion engines, comparison of diesel engine and petrol engine. Systems of internal combustion engine, performance of internal combustion engines. Air compressors their cycles refrigeration cycles, principle of a refrigeration plant.

ISRO Scientist Exam

Engineering Mathematics:

Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Taylor Series, Fourier Series, partial derivatives, total derivatives, definite and improper integrals, multiple integrals.

Vector Calculus: Gradient, divergence and curl, line and surface integrals, Green, Gauss and Stokes theorems.

Differential Equations: Linear ODEs, first order non-linear ODEs, initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transform, PDEs-Laplace, wave and diffusion equations.

Numerical Methods: Solution of system of linear equations, interpolation, numerical integration, Newton-Raphson method, Runge-Kutta method.

Probability & Statistics: Gaussian, Weibul distribution and their properties, method of least squares, regression analysis, analysis of variance.

Applied Mechanics and Design:

Engineering Mechanics: Equivalent force systems, free-body concepts, equations of equilibrium, trusses and frames, virtual work and minimum potential energy. Kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies, impulse and momentum (linear and angular), energy methods, central force motion.

Strength of Materials:  Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohrs circle for plane stress and plane strain, shear force and bending moment diagrams, bending and shear stresses, deflection of beams torsion of circular shafts, thin and thick cylinders, Eulers theory of columns, strain energy methods, thermal stresses.

Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration, analysis of plane mechanisms, dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism, planar cams and followers, gear tooth profiles, kinematics and design of gears, governors and flywheels, balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses.Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree freedom systems, effect of damping, vibration isolation, resonance, critical speed of rotors. 

Design of Machine Elements: Design for static and dynamic loading, failure theories, fatigue strength; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints; design of shafts and keys; design of spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings; brakes and clutches; belt, ropes and chain drives.

Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences:

Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties, fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; Control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy, fluid acceleration; Differential equation of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; Viscous flow of incompressible fluids; Boundary layer, Elementary turbulent flow; Flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; One dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; Dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, Various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; Thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; Radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; Heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.

Thermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; Thermodynamic system and processes; Irreversibility and availability; Behaviour of ideal and real gases, Properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes; Analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion; Carnot, Rankine, Otto, Diesel, Brayton and Vapour compression cycles.

Power Plant Engineering: Steam generators; Steam power cycles; Steam turbines; impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, pressure and velocity compounding; Reheating and reheat factor; Condensers and feed heaters.I.C. Engines: Requirements and suitability of fuels in IC engines, fuel ratings, fuel-air mixture requirements; Normal combustion in SI and CI engines; Engine performance calculations.

Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Refrigerant compressors, expansion devices, condensers and evaporators; Properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychometric processes.

Turbomachinery: Components of gas turbines; Compression processes, Centrifugal and Axial flow compressors; Axial flow turbines, elementary theory; Hydraulic turbines; Euler-Turbine equation; Specific speed, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines; Centrifugal pumps.

Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering:

Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials and their applications, heat treatment.

Metal Casting: Casting processes (expendable and non-expendable) -pattern, moulds and cores, Heating and pouring, Solidification and cooling, Gating Design, Design considerations, defects.

Forming Processes: Stress-strain diagrams for ductile and brittle material, Plastic deformation and yield criteria, Fundamentals of hot and cold working processes, Bulk metal forming processes (forging, rolling extrusion, drawing), Sheet metal working processes (punching, blanking, bending, deep drawing, coining, spinning, Load estimation using homogeneous deformation methods, Defects). Processing of Powder metals- Atomization, compaction, sintering, secondary and finishing operations. Forming and shaping of Plastics- Extrusion, Injection Molding.

Joining Processes: Physics of welding, Fusion and non-fusion welding processes, brazing and soldering, Adhesive bonding, Design considerations in welding, Weld quality defects.Machining and Machine Tool

Operations: Mechanics of machining, Single and multi-point cutting tools, Tool geometry and materials, Tool life and wear, cutting fluids, Machinability, Economics of machining, non-traditional machining processes.

Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances, linear and angular measurements, comparators, gauge design, interferometry, Form and finish measurement, measurement of screw threads, Alignment and testing methods.

Tool Engineering: Principles of work holding, Design of jigs and fixtures. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD, CAM and their integration tools.

Manufacturing Analysis: Part-print analysis, tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly, time and cost analysis.

Work-Study: Method study, work measurement time study, work sampling, job evaluation, merit rating.

Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, master scheduling, materials requirements planning.

Inventory Control: Deterministic and probabilistic models, safety stock inventory control systems.

Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.


Theory of Machines, Vibrations, Design of Machine elements, Heat Transfer,  Thermodynamics, Applied Thermodynamics, Strength of Materials, Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, Material science and metallurgy, Metal cutting and machine tools, Foundry, Welding and Forging.


Engineering Mechanics: Free body diagrams and equilibrium, Virtual work, Impulse and momentum, Trusses and frames, Kinematics and dynamics

Strength of Materials: Stress and strain, Elastic constants, Bending and shear stresses, Torsion of circular shafts, Strain energy methods, Stress-strain relationship, Mohr’s circle, Deflection of beams, Euler’s theory of columns, Thermal stresses

Theory of Machines: Displacement, Slider-crank mechanism, Flywheels, Plane mechanisms, Gear trains

Design: Static and dynamic loading, Fatigue strength, Failure theories, S-N diagram

Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties, Manometry, Fluid acceleration, Bernoulli’s equation, Boundary layer, Fluid statics, Buoyancy, Continuity and momentum, Viscous flow, Elementary turbulent flow

Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer, Resistance concept, Unsteady heat conduction, Thermal boundary layer, Radiative heat transfer, LMTD and NTU methods, One dimensional heat conduction, Electrical analogy, Fins, Effect of turbulence,Heat exchanger performance

Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic system and processes, Irreversibility and availability, Properties of pure substances, Energy conversion, Laws of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, Behavior of ideal and real gases, Thermodynamic cycles

Applications: Power Engineering, Rankine cycle, I.C. Engines, Air-conditioning, Heat pumps, Reverse Brayton cycle, Psychometric chart, Turbo machinery, Francis and Kaplan,  turbines, Steam Tables, Brayton cycles, Refrigeration, Vapor refrigeration cycle, Gas refrigeration, Moist air, Psychometric processes, Pelton-wheel, Velocity diagrams

Engineering Materials: Stress-strain diagrams, Heat treatment

Metal Casting: Design of patterns, Solidification and cooling, Design considerations, Moulds and cores, Riser and gating design

Forming: Plastic deformation, Load estimation, Hot and cold working processes

Joining: Welding, Soldering, Design in welding, Brazing, Adhesive bonding

Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining, Tool geometry and materials, Economics of machining, Principles of work holding, Single and multi-point cutting tools, Tool life and wear

Non-traditional machining processes, Design of jigs and fixtures

Metrology and Inspection: Limits, Linear and angular measurements, Interferometry, Alignment and testing methods, Tolerance analysis, Fits, Tolerances, Comparators, Gauge design, Form and finish measurement

Computer Integrated Manufacturing: CAD, Integration tools, CAM

Production Planning and Control: Scheduling, Forecasting models, Aggregate production planning, Materials requirement planning

Inventory Control: Safety stock inventory control systems, Deterministic models, Probabilistic models

Operations Research: Linear programming, Transportation, Network flow models, PERT, Simplex and duplex method, Assignment, Simple queuing models, CPM

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